With the increase in onus of distribution of multimedia data over the network, the owners of valuable data are beginning to show concern about their copyright protection. Digital watermarking has come up as the most suitable technique for providing copyright protection. Many algorithms have been proposed over the past few years to watermark still images, video and audio. But from an implementation point of view, no concrete results have been shown. Also, from a multicast prospective, identification of a leaker(s), is of great concern. We have implemented a Watermark-Aware Secure Multicast Protocol to enable copyright protection for applications such as video-on-demand. From our results, we deduce that a secure watermark-aware multicast system can show very good performance for streaming pre-recorded video. Since, watermarking is not done in real-time, streaming watermarked live-video is not possible.
Also from the security perspective, it is very important that all the information is transmitted in a secure way. Digital data can easily be copied and multiplied without information loss. This requires security solutions for such fields as multicasting pay-per-view video (video-on-demand) and live video-streaming (video-conferencing), since the producers seek to provide access control mechanisms to prevent misuse and theft of material.
There have not been any substantial efforts to engineer and analyze such a system which takes care of these security issues while multicasting video data to a group of members, though many theoretical solutions have been proposed. We have designed and implemented one such secure multicast system. It is based on a protocol which uses real-time encryption to secure the multimedia data and involves separate nodes to multicast and to perform the key-management in order to achieve added security. The analysis of the obtained results show that it is in fact feasible to have such a system perform well in real-time.
- Christopher Busch, Klara Nahrstedt, Ioannis Pitas, Image Security (Guest Editor Introduction), IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Special Issue on Multimedia Security, Vol. 19, No. 1, January/February 1999, pp.16-17.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, Watermarking Schemes and Protocols for Protecting Rightful Ownership and Customer’s Rights, Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Academic Press, Vol. 9, No. 3, September 1998, pp. 194-210.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, Comparison of MPEG Encryption Algorithms, International Journal on Computers & Graphics, Special Issue: “Data Security in Image Communication and Network”, Permagon Publisher, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1998.
- Klara Nahrstedt, Alex Chen, Global Authentication Framework Preserving Privacy in Multimedia Mobile Environments, in Proceedings of ACM Multimedia (Multimedia Security Workshop), Orlando, FL, October, 1999.
- Hao-hua Chu, Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, A Secure Multicast Protocol with Copyright Protection, in Proceedings of IS&T/SPIE’s Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology, San Jose, CA, January 1999.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, Non-Invertible Watermarking Scheme for MPEG Audio, in Proceedings of SPIE Multimedia Security Conference, San Jose, CA, January 1999.
- Klara Nahrstedt, Lintian Qiao, Non-Invertible Watermarking Methods for MPEG Video and Audio, ACM Multimedia (Security Workshop), Bristol, England, September 1998, pp. 93-98.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, Watermarking Method for MPEG Encoded Video: Towards Resolving Rightful Ownership, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS’98), Austin, TX, June 1998, pp.276-286.
- Klara Nahrstedt, Lintian Qiao, Multimedia Secure Gateway, Multimedia Security Workshop as part of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS’98), Austin, TX, June 1998, pp. 1-8.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, Ivan Tam, Is MPEG Encryption Using Random Lists instead of Zig Zag Order Secure?. In Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, Singapore, December 1997.
- Lintian Qiao, Klara Nahrstedt, A New Algorithm for MPEG Video Encryption, International Conference on Imaging Science, Systems, and Technology (CISST’97), Las Vegas, June 1997, pp.21-29